So you can't experiment on animals because that is cruel, and you can't collect data from people because that is cruel, so it's best to stick your head in the sand and never experiment so that the Heimlich maneouvre can continue to be discredited as "it has never been proven". Hmm, how scientific - to discredit something without proof! For someone who has witnessed a person drown, I can tell you that blowing air into this poor man's mouth makes it all go into the stomach. First, bubbles came out of his mouth, then it started pouring out in a steady stream, then vomit came spurting out. His belly became bigger and bigger, and when the stomach could expand no more, its contents are forced to come back up with the air. He turned paler and paler and never regained consciousness. In retrospect, I can say for certain that his vocal cords were NOT constricted. If so, the rescue breath would not have gone past his mouth and his stomach would not have bloated up. It was his lungs that were full of water, and that's why none of the air went in there and it all went into the stomach instead. It's just a matter of common sense that you need to get the water out of the lungs first. So simple, and yet. It's a bloody disgrace that doctors with vested interests choose not to do what is best for the victims, for reasons that only they know. They keep insisting that Heimlich is wrong, without trying to PROVE him wrong. Why? Are they afraid to find out that he is right? Is this a battle of egos? Meanwhile, people continue to die - needlessly.