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Texas BBQ Predates the Civil War

The tradition of open-pit barbecues in Texas is older than you think.

Texas BBQ Predates the Civil War
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This didn't look like the barbecue that most of us are used to. The trinity of Texas barbecue — brisket, pork ribs and sausage — wasn't on the menu. They had been replaced by the barbecue meats of an earlier era: mutton, beef clod and pork shoulder. The pit didn't have any metal doors or chimneys; it was part of that older style of cooking known as open-pit barbecue.

The meat is turned by placing an empty metal basket on top of a loaded one and flipping both.
photo by Eric Sauseda
The meat is turned by placing an empty metal basket on top of a loaded one and flipping both.
The Grawunder boys make the barbecue "gravy." (From right:) James Grawunder has been cooking here for 58 years, his nephew Tom and sons Ray and James Jr. help out.
photo by Eric Sauseda
The Grawunder boys make the barbecue "gravy." (From right:) James Grawunder has been cooking here for 58 years, his nephew Tom and sons Ray and James Jr. help out.

The long, low open trench was recessed several feet into the ground and lined on either side with a single course of bricks and an iron rail. There were no coverings to retain the smoke or heat. The void in the middle had been filled the night before with oak and pecan wood, which had burned down until nothing remained but glowing wood coals. The biggest cuts of meat went on the pit the night before. The crew tended the pit throughout the night, extinguishing flare-ups with a squirt of water or a shovel full of sand.

I was amazed by what I was seeing. It was as if I had entered a barbecue time machine. This is almost exactly what barbecue pits across the Old South looked like in the 1800s, according to the black-and-white archival photos I have come across. But while I was marveling at how much of the tradition had been preserved, the guy next to me was grousing about how much of it had been lost.

"Times have changed," said Bolten glumly. "We never put the cooked meat in an ice chest in the old days." I'm not sure where the practice of putting barbecued briskets and pork butts in coolers so they could finish cooking came from — I suspect it's an innovation introduced by barbecue cookoff competitors. But it's a great way to keep the meat warm and give it a little extra-slow cooking time without burning it. I didn't even notice the coolers until Bolten mentioned them.

"And those baskets, we didn't have those, either," he said, pointing to the portable grates of welded metal rods and expanded metal that stretched from one side of the pit to the other, holding the meat above the coals. When the men wanted to turn the meat, they would place an empty metal-rod basket over the top of the one on the pit, turn them both over and take the top one off. "We always used these," Bolten said, pointing to a thick and rusty seven-foot-long metal rod.

Barbecue is one of the oldest artisan food traditions of the Americas. For the past few years, I have been crisscrossing the Old South documenting Southern barbecue culture. When I set out, I expected to trace American barbecue back to its roots in rural Southern restaurants. But in my research, I found the ancient artisanal culinary culture I was searching for has been much better preserved in community barbecues, though those are endangered, too.

In Lexington, North Carolina, the nation's self-proclaimed barbecue capital, there are more than 20 barbecue restaurants, but you can count the traditional wood-fired pits on the fingers of one hand. The barbecue restaurant category is booming in Atlanta, but few if any of the new franchise outlets have old-fashioned pits. And I was surprised to discover that even iconic barbecue restaurants like Big Bob Gibson's in Decatur, Alabama, and City Market in Luling, Texas, now use stainless-steel Southern Pride barbecue ovens to increase their capacity.

The most important thing I realized in my travels is that I was looking for the wellsprings of American barbecue in the wrong places. The purpose of a barbecue restaurant is to make a profit, not to preserve culinary traditions. Restaurants aren't where American barbecue came from.

The oldest barbecue tradition in America is the community barbecue. Colonists borrowed the barbecue techniques from Native Americans, but the Europeans introduced the hogs, sheep and cattle that became the favored meats. In colonial times, barbecues were common in Massachusetts and Maine as well as Virginia and North Carolina.

George Washington's diary entry for May 27, 1769, notes that he "went in to Alexandria to a Barbecue and stayed all Night." The barbecue George Washington ate was almost certainly cooked on a long, low pit full of hardwood coals, much like the one in Millheim. He certainly ate barbecued pig, and he may have eaten mutton as well.

In his book Barbecue: The History of an American Institution, Robert F. Moss writes: "From its earliest days, barbecue was not just a type of food or a cooking technique but also a social event." In the early 1800s, sermons were heard at camp-meeting barbecues and patriotic speeches were delivered by politicians at Fourth of July barbecues.

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11 comments
turtletxn
turtletxn

Really enjoyed the article. Great job.

Hermes
Hermes

We used to have an open pit made from an old iron bed headboard and frame. Corrugated tin was used to close off the sides. Hog wire provided the cooking surface. It was always the center of activity at family reunions in Sweet Home, TX. Loved the article. Plan to rig up an open pit on our next visit to the country.

EddievonTrier
EddievonTrier

So, it sounds like 'real BBQ' is closer to the stuff I did on my Weber grill in Chicago, than those smoked meats I find all over the place down here. Is that right?

Tomball girl
Tomball girl

I grew up in Tomball when, in the summer, almost every local church and fire department had a Sunday bar-b-que....and my dad filled in the remaining Sundays with his brisket cooked 14 hours....and as many "split chickens" as he could cook to fill in the spaces. The best bar-b-que we bought was made in the pit behind the only store in "old Washington" (Washington on the Brazos). Every bar-b-que joint I try is judged on those standards. My new pet peave are places that served decent brisket, but no packages of white bread--any Texas knows a pile of brisket is enjoyed a piece at the time on a piece of white bread with pickles and onions, and hopefully a vinegar-based sauce. Oh, for the good old days.....

James H
James H

Awesome article! Really enjoy reading about Texas barbecue.

Paul
Paul

I'm getting hungry and I'm only on page 2 ....

Potful
Potful

Another great piece of food history by Robb Walsh. Thanks!

John
John

Great article. When did City Market start using Southern Pride and what meats do they use it for?

Geezy
Geezy

I'm rather young but grew up in a small town/community of about 2500 people, but this article brings alot of great memories. My father started teaching me how to tend a fire when I was 8- in his words "if a man can't tend a fire, well he ain't shit". A few years later I'd move to helping my Uncle Art tend to the big brick pits at the VFW for fundraisers and communal gatherings. The most important thing about these gathers isn't rather what it's for, but who is ultimately doing the cooking. Word eventually get's out that someone like Gut, Tuna, etc. will be doing the cooking, you'll get the entire town to come out. It's just tradition. About 2 years ago I had a cousin who is a well respected community member have a stroke, so a fundraiser was thrown. Much like what you witnessed, we used 3 brick pits about 20 ft long with the long steel grates and a long slit in the back for coals to get thrown in as needed. All the while, a 6 foot hole had been dugout behind the cooking shed and a small cabrito was laid in the ground and cooked the old way. We cooked 56 briskets that night, 100 links of sausage, 40 pounds of beans and reminisced. All in all takes about 14 hours to cook everything, beats the shit out of your body, but is worth every minute. Kudos to a damn good article here sir.

TOLDYA
TOLDYA

Great article !!!

 
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