History

Don Robey Built His Gospel Empire With Ruthless Street Tactics

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REWIND: The Sacred Music of Houston Record Mogul Don Robey

Robey put it out there that Robinson went against his own to sign with a white man, so he was effectively blackballed, he said, and had to leave gospel for R&B; he later had a minor hit in 1966 with "That's Enough."

By all accounts -- and I do mean all -- Robey was the black Lucky Luciano, ruling his musical turf as a ruthless boss. Such was his rep that when his rising star Johnny Ace accidentally shot himself to death on Christmas Day 1954, rumors started that it was actually a hit on an artist looking to leave his label. (These were disproven by eyewitnesses, including Big Mama Thornton.)

In 1953, after he acquired full ownership of Duke (reportedly using a Colt. 45 as a bargaining chip), Robey started a gospel series on that label, including two releases by acts with ties to Austin's first family of gospel, the Franklins. The Paramount Singers, who were co-founded by Ermant M. Franklin, but relocated to Oakland during WWII, and the Chariettes, featuring E.M.'s daughter Evelyn Franklin, recorded singles for Duke.

The Franklins who would have the biggest impact on Peacock were Ermant Jr. and brother Elmo, whose Mighty Clouds of Joy signed with Robey in 1960 and changed gospel music forever by making the full, funky band essential. The group, who would go on to be known as "The Temptations of Gospel," recorded the spiritual hit "Ain't Got Long Here" at their very first Peacock session and had enormous LP sales with Family Circle in '62 and Live at the Music Hall in '67. Clouds lead singer Joe Ligon, a native of Troy, Ala., was an acolyte of Brownlee and Sensational Nightingales lead singer Julius Cheeks, taking Peacock's anguished rasp sound full-circle. The band's soul-funk influence is still prominent in current Texas gospel acts like the Relatives and the Jones Family Singers.

Little Richard was also on Peacock Records for a spell, in 1953, with his band the Tempo Toppers. In an interview with Dave Booth, Little Richard recalled that his signing was not voluntary.

"I wouldn't sign that contract," Richard said, "and I ended up signing it because he beat me so bad. I had ran away from home...and he took advantage of it."

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Michael Corcoran